LPN1,2,3 and LEMP
Genetic Testing for neurological diseases in Leonbergers
Order forms LPN,
and LEMP tests Bern University
Formulaire de demande d'analyse LPN, LPPN et LEMP Bern
Untersuchungsantrag LPN, LPPN und LEMP Bern
Order form LPN,
LPPN and LEMP and info University of Minnesota
LEMP and LPPN3 result of dogs that were allready tested for LPN can be
asked by email to
email@example.com Costs € 55
Click for the list of LPN1/2
LPPN 3 & LEMP test results
As off 30 October 2020 thge LPPN3 test is available.
Click for info
Laryngeal Paralysis - Polyneuropathy (LPN1, LPN2, & LPPN3)
dogs may suffer from neuromuscular disease collectively
termed Laryngeal Paralysis - Polyneuropathy (LPPN). Many
LPPN affected dogs suffers from laryngeal
paralysis; clinical signs include noisy breathing, a
change in their bark, or even difficulty breathing due to
involvement of the larynx and laryngeal folds in the
throat. Additionally, dogs may show signs of slowly
worsening exercise intolerance and develop gait
abnormalities, such as an exaggerated hitched step,
especially in the hind limbs; there is often wasting of
the hind limb muscles as well. Eventually the disease may
progress to the point where surgical
intervention for laryngeal paralysis is required or the
dog cannot support its own weight. Biopsies of nerve from
affected dogs show degradation of the nerve fibers and
loss of myelin, the insulating material that normally
helps speed messages along nerves. Muscle biopsies show
atrophy resulting from nerve loss.
Dogs with LPPN may show only signs of laryngeal paralysis
or only gait abnormalities at the onset of disease.
Research carried out at the University of Minnesota, the University
of Bern, and the University
of California, San Diego - Comparative Neuromuscular
Laboratory indicates that polyneuropathy
/ laryngeal paralysis within the Leonberger breed is a
group of several genetically distinct, but clinically
similar diseases. We have mapped three major genetic risk
loci and identified the causative mutations that we now
term LPN1, LPN2, and LPPN3.
For LEMP, LPN1 and LPPN3 we recommend avoiding matings that could
produce LEMP-D/D (i.e. affected) dogs. Having only one LEMP-D/N parent,
with a LEMP-N/N parent, will ensure that no LEMP-D/D offspring will be
For LPN2 we recommend avoiding matings that could produce
LPN2-D/D and LPN2-D/N affected dogs.
Vetsuisse Bern offers on
its order form a genetic test for sand coat color.
Sand coat color is
an officially allowed coat color for Leonbergers.
There is no need to
exclude sand coloured Leonbergers from breeding.